Copernicus - A Short Biography
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Back in Warmia, in , Copernicus worked on astronomy when he could, but he was usually busy with other duties.
Essay on Early Life of Nicolaus Copernicus
Nevertheless, by , he had seen enough in the sky and thought enough about his observations to circulate a few pages with the title Commentariolus — The Little Commentary — to people he trusted. In this hand-written document he put forward his new view of the universe. He thought people should shift from a geocentric earth centered view to a heliocentric sun centered view.
With these starting points, he had relegated our planet from a special, highly privileged position at the center of the universe, to nothing very special — another planet moving around the sun. This was potentially dangerous, because a lot of people held the view that:. Of course, in , Copernicus revealed his new theory of the universe to just a small number of trusted friends. And he had finished writing the first manuscript of his groundbreaking book De revolutionibus orbium coelestium — The Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. He did not publish it, though, because he was worried about the reception it would get.
He showed it to close friends and associates, and word began to leak out that Copernicus had a theory that the earth and the planets orbit the sun. The Pope heard about it, and Archbishops heard about it, but at this stage people just wanted to hear more about it — nobody came after Copernicus to burn him at the stake. This changed when Georg Joachim Rheticus, a German mathematician, came to learn everything he could from Copernicus.
Rheticus studied with Copernicus for two years. He read De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium and was incredibly enthusiastic about it. He thought Copernicus owed it to the world to publish it. Nicolaus Copernicus correctly identified that Terra the earth is one of the planets orbiting Sol the sun. Only the moon orbits Earth. Copernicus also shows the planets in the correct order. Osiander had given the church an excuse not to immediately condemn the book as heretical.http://helpamzn.es.system-amz-es-supprt-csmail.dns04.com/tymu-contactos-en-toledo.php
Essay on The Life of Nicolaus Copernicus - Words | Bartleby
Copernicus, diplomatically, dedicated his book to the Pope. Another factor that saved the book from immediate suppression is that it was so mathematically difficult that only highly educated people could read it, most of whom were less likely to start ranting on street corners than others might have been. Ptolemy had wrongly placed Earth closer to Mercury than Venus. Although he was correct that the planets orbit the sun, he was wrong in saying that they follow circular paths.
Unusually, disapproval of Copernicus — who was now dead — united both Catholic and Protestant Church leaders, although as time passed Catholic disapproval increased, while Protestant disapproval decreased. Despite the final approval, the book was still not actually published in any countries with a powerful Catholic Church.
Nevertheless, support for Copernicus continued to grow, and his ideas triumphed over those of his opponents. It was a victory for evidence-based, observational science, interpreted using the language of nature — mathematics. Almost two millennia before Copernicus published his theory of a heliocentric universe, the ancient Greek astronomer Aristarchus published the first heliocentric universe theory.
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You can read that fascinating story here. Amazingly, despite it being clear for centuries that our solar system is heliocentric, opinion polls in countries including Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom show about 1-in-5 or 1-in-6 people still believe that the sun orbits the earth! Nicolaus Copernicus died at the age of 70, on May 24, of a stroke. Novara had the responsibility of issuing annual astrological prognostications for the city, forecasts that included all social groups but gave special attention to the fate of the Italian princes and their enemies.
The first such known observation occurred on March 9, , at Bologna. By the time he published this observation in , he had made it the basis of a theoretical claim: that it confirmed exactly the size of the apparent lunar diameter.
In Copernicus spoke before an interested audience in Rome on mathematical subjects, but the exact content of his lectures is unknown. In he stayed briefly in Frauenburg but soon returned to Italy to continue his studies, this time at the University of Padua , where he pursued medical studies between and Copernicus later painted a self-portrait; it is likely that he acquired the necessary artistic skills while in Padua , since there was a flourishing community of painters there and in nearby Venice.
In May Copernicus finally received a doctorate—like his uncle, in canon law—but from an Italian university where he had not studied: the University of Ferrara.
As a church canon, he collected rents from church-owned lands; secured military defenses; oversaw chapter finances; managed the bakery, brewery, and mills; and cared for the medical needs of the other canons and his uncle. Despite serving as a canon, Copernicus did not become a priest. He used the knowledge of Greek that he had acquired during his Italian studies to prepare a Latin translation of the aphorisms of an obscure 7th-century Byzantine historian and poet, Theophylactus Simocattes. The work was published in Cracow in and dedicated to his uncle. The civil calendar then in use was still the one produced under the reign of Julius Caesar , and, over the centuries, it had fallen seriously out of alignment with the actual positions of the Sun.
His father was a merchant and local official. When Copernicus was 10 his father died, and his uncle, a priest, ensured that Copernicus received a good education. In , Copernicus entered the University of Cracow, in Poland where he studied painting and mathematics. Copernicus became interested in astronomy and started collecting books on the topic. In , Copernicus left and traveled to Italy , where he joined a religious law program in the University of Bologna.
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There, he met astronomer Domenico Maria Novara, a fateful encounter, as the two began exchanging astronomical ideas and observations. They were so captivate in their intellectual exchange, they decided to become roommates. Then, Copernicus went on to study practical medicine at the University of Padua.
In , Copernicus attended the University of Ferrara, where he prepared to take the canon law exam. After passing the test on his first attempt, he hurried back home to Poland. Copernicus remained at the Lidzbark-Warminski residence for the next seven years, working and tending to his elderly, ailing uncle, and exploring astronomy whenever he could find the time.
Copernicus became a symbol of the brave scientist standing alone, defending his theories against the common beliefs of his time.