VOLCANO

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Moment Stromboli volcano erupts in Italy

A short textual code also called "store code" that uniquely identifies a place of business. The code is typically assigned by the parentOrganization and used in structured URLs. The basic containment relation between a place and one that contains it. Supersedes containedIn. Inverse property: containsPlace. The basic containment relation between a place and another that it contains. Inverse property: containedInPlace.

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Represents a relationship between two geometries or the places they represent , relating a containing geometry to a contained geometry. As defined in DE-9IM. Represents a relationship between two geometries or the places they represent , relating a geometry to another that covers it. Represents a relationship between two geometries or the places they represent , relating a covering geometry to a covered geometry. Represents a relationship between two geometries or the places they represent , relating a geometry to another that crosses it: "a crosses b: they have some but not all interior points in common, and the dimension of the intersection is less than that of at least one of them".

Represents spatial relations in which two geometries or the places they represent are topologically disjoint: they have no point in common. They form a set of disconnected geometries. When magma reaches the surface of the Earth it is called lava and comes out of the volcano as a volcanic eruption, along with gases and ash. Most volcanic eruptions are caused by tectonic plates moving towards each other, which usually produces violent eruptions.

These do not erupt violently and lava usually flows slowly out of them. Eruptions from volcanoes can be very dangerous.


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They can produce:. Mauna Loa is about 55, feet 17, meters from its base beneath the ocean to the summit, which is 13, feet 4, meters above sea level. It is also one of the Earth's most active volcanoes and is carefully monitored. The most recent eruption was in Lava domes are built up when the lava is too viscous to flow , according to the U. A bubble or plug of cooling rock forms over a fissure. This cooler, thick lava usually rises near the end of an explosive eruption and lava domes often form within the craters of stratovolcanoes.

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Helens has several well-defined lava domes inside the crater , according to NASA. Besides well-known symmetrical volcanoes such as Mount Fuji in Japan and Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, volcanic activity is responsible for several other distinctive landforms. Calderas : A caldera is a bowl-shaped depression formed when a volcano collapses into the void left when its magma chamber is emptied.

Volcano Facts and Types of Volcanoes

There are three types , according to San Diego State University. The first type is a crater lake caldera.


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This is the result of a stratovolcano collapsing into its magma chamber during a violent eruption. Basaltic calderas have a concentric ring pattern resulting from a series of gradual collapses rather than a single event. They are often found at the summit of shield volcanoes such as the craters at the tops of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. Resurgent calderas are the largest volcanic structures on Earth.

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They are the result of catastrophic eruptions that dwarf any eruptions ever recorded by human beings. Yellowstone caldera, sometimes called a "super volcano," is one example. Volcanic plugs : When magma solidifies in the fissure of a volcano the hard dense rock may form a " neck " that remains when softer surrounding rock has been eroded away, according to the U. Tuff cones : also known as maars, tuff cones are shallow, flat-floored craters that scientists think formed as a result of a violent expansion of magmatic gas or steam, according to the U.

Maars range in size from to 6, feet 60 to 1, meters across and from 30 to feet 9 to meters deep, and most are commonly filled with water to form natural lakes. Maars occur geologically young volcanic regions of the world such as the western United States and the Eifel region of Germany. Lava plateaus : Shield volcanoes may erupt along lines of fissures rather than a central vent spilling liquid lava in successive layers. Over time as these layers form broad plateaus such as the Columbia Plateau, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica.

These plateaus are often cut by deep canyons that expose the layers of rock. It has erupted dozens of times in the past 2, years, according to the Encyclopedia Britannica. The A. The volcano sent a cloud ejecta into the atmosphere that was more than four times the amount ejected by Mount Pinatubo in , leading to the " Year Without a Summer " of in Europe and North America, according to a paper in Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change.

Seventy-pound boulders landed on islands 50 miles away, and a foot tsunami devastated hundreds of villages, including Java and Sumatra, according to San Diego State University.